Rorate Caeli

600
Joan of Arc :
III - Persecution by the Church hierarchy as a road to sanctification

6 janvier 1412 – 6 janvier 2012
A special guest-series by Côme de Prévigny

Joan of Arc (III) : A Saint under excommunication

The river Seine runs through Rouen, site of Joan's execution. Following the Saint's burning at the stake, by order of the ecclesiastical court headed by the Bishop of Beauvais, Pierre Cauchon, Cardinal Henry Beaufort ordered that her bones and ashes be thrown into the river, never to be found.  Joan of Arc was born exactly 600 years ago today, on January 6, 1412. (Image: mdxdt - CC.)

Left alone, Joan felt herself wavering. In the cemetery of Saint-Ouen, near Rouen Cathedral, before people and court, she signed in her last days an act of abjuration that had been presented to her and that she had not read, by placing under pressure a cross which represented, according to different interpretations, either acceptance or invalidation. On the following day, however, she retracted, and trusted in the need to conform to her voices. Even the greatest saints can feel tempted to be discouraged. It is nonetheless in their ability to rise up in such a situation that we recognize their spiritual strength and the heroic character of their virtues. Was not the Savior himself tempted in the Garden of Olives, before letting out a cry of sufferance, "Father, Father, why have you forsaken me?"

But the supreme sacrifice was at hand. Joan was condemned to death. The sentence of excommunication is read to her, with the solemn form that the representatives of the Church conferred upon it. She climbs up the steps of the platform where was located the fire that was to consume her, officially condemned by the Holy Inquisition whose guardians indicated to her in the verdict, with the hypocrisy that was to be expected, that they sincerely thought that she, Joan, should have "preferred to remain faithfully and constantly in the communion, as well as in the unity of the Catholic Church and of the Roman Pontiff." [6] On her was placed a headgear on which the points of condemnation, that her detractors repeated unceasingly, were written: "heretic, schismatic, relapser". What pain is more vicious for the true servants of the Church than that of feeling isolated at the end of their lives, rejected by their authorities at the same time in which places of honor are often granted to those who mistreat the essential truths of the Faith? Jesus Christ, abandoned by his disciples, had not himself been condemned to be crucified, at the same time in which Barabbas, the worst of criminals, was liberated?



Joan climbs up towards martyrdom. Her skin would crimson, her hair would burn, her limbs would be carbonized by the flames, and already some of her accusers, such as Loyseleur, approached hastily the cart taking her to the place of her torment to ask her to grant them her pardon. Faced with such holiness, her distraught executioner  ran off and fell on his knees before a Friar Preacher: "I strongly fear I will be damned because I have burned a saint," a final confession that recalls the biblical words prefiguring the attitude of those who crucified Our Lord: "They shall look upon him, whom they have pierced".

A quarter-century after her death, the cause of the heroine of Orleans was revisited and the Church rehabilitated her officially. Until then, the number of those who believed that it was forbidden to judge the verdicts of the representatives of the ecclesiastical Institution was large. Pius XII celebrated this dignified end of a French heroine who was to one day obtain on earth, as she had in heaven, the crown of saints: "In the silence, the words of a martyr faithful to her vocation resonate, filled with faith in the Church, to which she appealed by invoking the sweetest name of Jesus, her only consolation. Through the flames that rise up, she stares at the Cross, certain that she will one day obtain justice." [8]

Is not Saint Augustine referring to the beautiful characters forged in Joan's image in these lines? "Often, too, Divine Providence permits even good men to be driven from the congregation of Christ by the turbulent seditions of carnal men. When, for the sake of the peace of the Church, they patiently endure that insult or injury, and attempt no novelties in the way of heresy and schism, they will teach men how God is to be served with a true disposition and with great and sincere charity. The intention of such men is to return when the tumult has subsided. But, if that is not permitted because the storm continues or because a fiercer one might be stirred up by their return, they hold fast to their purpose to look to the good even of those responsible for the tumults and commotions that drove them out: and, without forming secret congregations, they defend to the death and confirm by their testimony the faith which they know is preached in the Catholic Church. The One who sees their secret combats crowns their victory in secret. This situation seems rare in the Church, but it is not without precedent, it presents itself more often than it can be believed. So Divine Providence uses all kinds of men as examples for the sanctification of souls and for the edification of the people of God." [9]

[Part I: A Saint in armor]
[Part II: A Saint in isolation]
_________________________
Notes:
[6] Transcript of the trial of Joan of Arc, 56th session, May 30, 1431.
[7] Transcript of the trial of Joan of Arc, ibidem.
[8] Pius XII, Radio message to France, June 25, 1956.
[9] Saint Augustine, On True Religion, VI, 11.

30 comments:

Long-Skirts said...

""In the silence, the words of a martyr faithful to her vocation resonate,"

THE
CARTHUSIANS

To be "Hanged in their habits"
What a glorious thing
For their silence screamed,
"Christ is the King!"

And like the Innocents
So Holy that died
With sword-cut bodies
Their mothers cried

And wept like mothers
Do today
Who send their sons
Into the fray

Like Innocent Carthusians
With staff and rod
Who continue the defence...
The Priest-sons of God!

St. Joan of Arc pray for us and ask Christ to make the Pope brave!!

Tom the Milkman said...

The best installment of this series! Beautiful.

I'm caught by the words "Persecution by the Church hierarchy as a road to sanctification".

It's remarkable how the struggle of each succeeding age remains noticably unchanged across centuries. There's food for meditation there.

Saint Joan, pray for the Roman Church!

Tom the Milkman said...

By the way, I meant to congratulate Long-Skirts on a magnificent poem - The Carthusians!
Write on, dear lady, and thank you!

M. A. said...

"she signed in her last days an act of abjuration"

The Abbe de Nantes claimed that Joan never did sign that abjuration.

This is a very moving account. In the eyes of the world, the elect (those holding fast to the entire dogma of the faith as handed down to us) will always be "losers".

St. Joan of Arc, pray for us!

Ecclesia Militans said...

Thank you for such a beautiful reference, not only of Saint Joan but also of another saint who died excommunicated, as the title goes.

Here are the references:

- Tempted to sign a dangerous act but then withdrawing it the next day:
"Even the greatest saints can feel tempted to be discouraged. It is nonetheless in their ability to rise up in such a situation that we recognize their spiritual strength and the heroic character of their virtues. Was not the Savior himself tempted in the Garden of Olives, before letting out a cry of sufferance, "Father, Father, why have you forsaken me?"

- Accused of infidelity and of leaving the Church:
"officially condemned by the Holy Inquisition whose guardians indicated to her in the verdict, with the hypocrisy that was to be expected, that they sincerely thought that she, Joan, should have "preferred to remain faithfully and constantly in the communion, as well as in the unity of the Catholic Church and of the Roman Pontiff."

- Enduring the abuse of persons of authority who corrupt the truth:
"What pain is more vicious for the true servants of the Church than that of feeling isolated at the end of their lives, rejected by their authorities at the same time in which places of honor are often granted to those who mistreat the essential truths of the Faith? Jesus Christ, abandoned by his disciples, had not himself been condemned to be crucified, at the same time in which Barabbas, the worst of criminals, was liberated? "

- Awaiting the official rehabilitation and the cause of canonization by the Church more than twenty years after death:
"A quarter-century after her death, the cause of the heroine of Orleans was revisited and the Church rehabilitated her officially. Until then, those who believed that it was forbidden to judge the verdicts of the representatives of the ecclesiastical Institution were numerous."

- Testified by Saint Augustine to be a model of heroic defence of the Faith, reckognized by the Church as a 'martyrdom by exile':
"Often, too, divine providence permits even good men to be driven from the congregation of Christ by the turbulent seditions of carnal men. When, for the sake of the peace of the Church, they patiently endure that insult or injury, and attempt no novelties in the way of heresy and schism, they will teach men how God is to be served with a true disposition and with great and sincere charity. The intention of such men is to return when the tumult has subsided. But, if that is not permitted because the storm continues or because a fiercer one might be stirred up by their return, they hold fast to their purpose to look to the good even of those responsible for the tumults and commotions that drove them out: and, without forming secret congregations, they defend to the death and confirm by their testimony the faith which they know is preached in the Catholic Church. The One who sees their secret combats crowns their victory in secret. This situation seems rare in the Church, but it is not without precedent, it presents itself more often that can be believed. So Divine Providence uses all kinds of men as examples for the sanctification of souls and for the edification of the people of God."

Did the author perhaps intend to make this comparison of the two heroic witnesses of Christ?
Well, regardless of the author's intention, the Lord has intended it.

Merci Monseigneur!

Woody said...

Further to the thoughts here, I heartily join in thanking Come de Previgny for this very moving series of articles on Saint Joan. I recall also that Joan, I believe when she was at most a Servant of God, was one of the people most venerated by Saint Therese of Lisieux.

M. A. said...

In the interest of defending the honor of St. Joan, here it is:

From the CRC #258, pg. 9

"The University, whose Cauchon had been instrumental in sentencing Saint Joan, took its revenge on Gerson by fabricating a false memoire in his name, alleging that Saint Joan had abjured....Proof of this forger was established by Charles Boulanger in his book entitled, 7 Juillet 1456, enterrement de l'affaire Jeanne d'Arc, triomphe de l'université de Paris."

The Abbé expounds more fully in another of his newsletter.

While on the subject of injustices, in the same newsletter (258) the Abbé mentions in passing that "an English Dominican was burnt at the stake for opposing the Pope's personal heresy." The pope to whom he refers is John XXII whose heresy was holding that the souls of the just do not enjoy the beatific vision until after the Last Judgment.

I guess that Dominican did not belong to the "I'd-rather-be-wrong with-the-pope crowd".

:-)

Prof. Basto said...

The article is thought-provoking indeed. Some of the fellow commentators have written about the situation of Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre.

Regarding that analogy, I have just one doubt, and perhaps someone can help. As we all know, 25 years after her condemnation and death, St. Joan of Arc was declared innocent during a "trial of rehabilitation". According to the Catholic encyclopedia this trial was conducted by an ecclesiastical tribunal of appeal, that was constituted: twenty-four years later a revision of her trial, the procès de réhabilitation, was opened at Paris with the consent of the Holy See ... Now an appellate court constituted by the pope, after long inquiry and examination of witnesses, reversed and annulled the sentence pronounced by a local tribunal under Cauchon's presidency.

According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, one formal deficiency of the earlier "show-trial" of Joan is the fact that Joan had appealed to the Pope and her appeal had been ignored: the first trial had been conducted without reference to the pope; indeed it was carried out in defiance of St. Joan's appeal to the head of the Church.

The Catholic encyclopedia seems to imply that such a suppression of her right of appeal to the Pope was a decisive irregularity of the process conducted by the local bishop, and thus the Apostolic See, years later, decided to constitute a tribunal of appeal to hear the case for her rehabilitation.

In the case of Mons. Lefebvre, however, the decree of excommunication came from the Holy See itself (it was issued by the head of a dicastery of the Roman Curia), and, on the following day, the Pope himself issued an Apostolic Letter confirming that excommunication had been incurred, and that a schismatical act had taken place.

Perhaps it is possible that the Holy See too, that the Pope too, can pronounce unjust judgements of excommunication. But that is not yet cleraly established.

And in this surely the situation of the Archbishop differs from the situation of Joan: Joan was convicted by a local tribunal, presided by the local Bishop, and her appeal to the Pope was ignored. The Archbishop, on the other hand, was declared excommunicated by the Holy See, by Roman Curia and Pope. So, in his case, one cannot speak of the possibility of an "ecclesiastical appeal".

Of course, a subsequent Pope could review the acts of the Holy See made by and under bl. John Paul II that declared the Archbishop an excommunicate. But that review would not be an appeal, and, for it to rehabilitate the Archbishop, it would have to conclude that the supreme authority of the Church erred in declaring him an excommunicate in the first place.

Is that possible? That's the doubt.

Knight of Malta said...

Excommunicated Saints (some, like Saint Joan of Arc, only had the excommunication lifted after their death):

Saint Cyprian
Saint Hippolytus of Rome
Saint Joan of Arc
Saint Gerard Majella
Saint Mary of the Cross MacKillop
Saint Theodore Guerin
Saint Athanasius
Saint Lucifer of Cagliari
Saint Mary of the Cross

Not to mention Blesseds such as Mother Mary McKillop.

Two future Saints who were excommunicated (in my opinion):

Lefebvre
Feeney

Steve said...

Prof. Basto,

First, if memory serves me, ABL requested a canonical trial/ appeal from the 1988 excommunication and Count Neri Capponi even volunteered to represent him. He had an excellent case of subjective necessity in Canon Law which would have excluded automatic excommunication as a penalty.

This request was completely ignored by Rome. Thus, a future Pope could grant this request and truly look into whether the exculpatory Canon applied to ABL's actions in 1988. JPII was required to apply his own Canon Law as written in 1988. Instead he ignored the obviously applicable Canon and made a judgment as if it did not exist.

Furthermore, Cardinal Gantin issued the excommunication decree. JPII merely referred to that decree in Ecclessia Dei. Thus the pope "accepted" the decree, but never actually issued it himself.

Secondly, the "excommunications" of 1988 assumed the canonical validity of the suspensions of ABL and his priests in the 1970's.

The canonical process leading to the suspension of ABL in the 70's was dubious at best. Just read about it in Davie's Apologia volume one. ABL was called to Rome for a "discussion". It ended up being an interrogation by three Cardinals, who then claimed it was an official tribunal after the fact! ABL requested documentation that the pope had authorized this tribunal beforehand, which was required. They never did. He requested a canonical trial which was his right. He was refused.

Thus, I believe there is more than enough canonical irregularity in both cases to form the basis of a future nullification.

ABL could finally be granted, after death, the canonical trial(s) and appeals he requested, as was done for St. Joan.

Steve said...

http://www.sspxasia.com/Documents/Archbishop-Lefebvre/Apologia/Vol_one/Chapter_7.htm

"On 5 June [1975] Mgr. Lefebvre's lawyer lodged his appeal with the Court of the Apostolic Signature in Rome, listing serious breaches of Canon Law in the action taken against him and demanding the production of evidence that the Pope had in fact authorized the Cardinals to take their quite unprecedented action against the Society of St. Pius X. The text of appeal is entered under 21 May 1975...

On 10 June 1975 Mgr. Lefebvre's appeal was rejected on the grounds that the condemnation of the three Cardinals had been approved in forma specifica by the Pope and that therefore no appeal was admissible. Had this appeal gone forward it would have been necessary to produce the "express mandate" of the Holy Father authorizing the three Cardinals to act against Mgr. Lefebvre and also the approbation in forma specifica of the action which they took. There is every reason to believe that no such documents exist and that therefore the action taken against Mgr. Lefebvre was uncanonical and automatically void. Had these documents existed there is not the least doubt that the Commission of Cardinals would have produced them...

It is quite clear that the Pope's letter to Mgr. Lefebvre of 29 June 1975 (which will be found in its chronological order) was an attempt to give retroactive legality to a manifestly illegal process. This letter, far from allaying doubts concerning the regularity of the procedure." against the Archbishop, constituted the clumsiest of possible public admissions that it had been irregular. This a posteriori legalization of an illegal act will certainly scandalize anyone in the least familiar with the most elementary principles of jurisprudence. As Mgr. Lefebvre expressed it himself:

Has anyone ever seen, in Canon Law, or in other legal systems, a law, a decree, a decision endowed with a retroactive effect? One condemns and then judges afterwards."

Enoch said...

The article seems to presume that most Catholics who are excommunicated will eventually become vindicated and then canonized as saints. But what percentage of those who die while excommunicated have actually been canonized? I would think that it's a small percentage.

New Catholic said...

This article does not presume anything. It was written in honor of Saint Joan of Arc, and any additional interpretation belongs to each reader. As for the words of Saint Augustine, they really are not our fault... He is the one who said that these situations are more common that one would imagine.

NC

Enoch said...

NC, yes, the article was written about St. Joan, but the correlation that the author is trying to make between St. Joan and Archbishop Lefebvre (and the SSPX) is obvious.

In the situations to which St. Augustine is referring, did he ever mention that it is acceptable to ordain bishops without and against papal approval, and to set up seminaries, schools, and chapels which operate outside of the authority and jurisdiction of the Catholic Church? St. Augustine devoted much of his life, after his conversion and ordination, to combating the heresies that were rampant in those days. I don't believe that he ever suggested that it's acceptable to take the course that ABL took. Please correct me if I'm wrong.

New Catholic said...

Sorry, it was not obvious to me.

Maybe obviousness is in the eye of the beholder, right?

NC

Kathleen said...

When I see an item by Côme de Prévigny here it is always a treat. This series on Saint Joan of Arc has been a special gem though. Thank you to Côme de Prévigny and Rorate Caeli for bringing it to us!

And Long Skirts, your poems delight me every time. It seems Our Good God blessed you with the Irish poet's heart that can be filled with joy, sorrow, and mirth to overflowing all at the same time and weave them together into a song. I hope you are collecting them.

Pablo the Mexican said...

God had a woman do a mans job because all the men were sitting on their hands writing poetry and being important, and neglected God's will.

When God uses a woman, it is to shame us men.

And all the haters out there that would call me a woman hater, my Mommy was a woman (submissive to her husband) and so was my wife that bore me nine children.

*

Tradical said...

Hi Enoch,

Funny, I got the same impression. Ergo the life of St. Joan of Arc has some parallels to Archbishop Lefebvre.

Thanks for pointing this out.

As far as imprinting your bias on St. Augustine. You neglected to ask: Did he ever have a Pope kiss the Koran, organize a meeting of all religions etc?

It is not so much of question of what would St. Augustine say if he was presented with the isolated incidents you mentioned. You would have to provide the context for the decisions made by a Prince of the Church.

This is an important point, this is not a question of lay people (ala NeoCats) setting up their own liturgy etc. This is a question of an Archbishop expressing reservations and resistance to novelties in the Church.

Gotta go get my ear scraped. Looking forward to your thoughts!

Ecclesia Militans said...

Knight of Malta,

You should be careful what you write before posting it.
Some of those people you listed were never excommunicated, which can be easily checked.
Also, you listed Mary McKillop a total of three times, like she was three different people.

Furthermore, Leonard Feeney cannot be canonized because this would "canonize" his serious error - a denial of the baptism of blood and desire, both ancient teachings of the Church.

Enoch,

Saint Athanasius, Bishop and Doctor of the Church, faced with the heresy of a vast number of priests and bishops did most if not all of the things you listed. And he was excommunicated by the Pope. Was he wrong too?

These are his words from a letter to faithful Catholics:
"You are the ones who are happy; you who remain within the Church by your Faith, who hold firmly to the foundations of the Faith which has come down to you from Apostolic Tradition. And if an execrable jealousy has tried to shake it on a number of occasions, it has not succeeded. They are the ones who have broken away from it in the present crisis. No one, ever, will prevail against your Faith, beloved Brothers. And we believe that God will give us our churches back some day.

"Thus, the more violently they try to occupy the places of worship, the more they separate themselves from the Church. They claim that they represent the Church; but in reality, they are the ones who are expelling themselves from it and going astray. Even if Catholics faithful to Tradition are reduced to a handful, they are the ones who are the true Church of Jesus Christ."

Canuck said...

Enoch,
The Saint exhorts the faithful to keep the faith of all time, not to take on novelties. That is all ABL and the Society do. Period.

Canuck

Knight of Malta said...

Ecclesia Militans,

You are absolutely correct as to my errors. Sorry, I was feverishly cutting-and-pasting in the few minutes before I went to work this morning, so much for internet scrutiny! (though I'm still not sure that any of these Saints weren't excommunicated at one point during life). But, anyway, thank you for your diligence!

But, you overlook my central point: that Saints have been excommunicated in life.

Also, you are mistaken that Feeney can't be canonized. Baptism of Blood/Desire are not dogmas of the Church, and the Church herself is divided as to whether they are even settled doctrine.

...

The situation of Athanasius is analogous inasmuch as he ordained priests and consecrated Bishops while "excommunicated" to preserve the faith.

Long-Skirts said...

Enoch said:

"...to set up seminaries, schools, and chapels...?"

Oh, my!!

Thank God he did! A Good Shepherd. Praise be Jesus Christ now and forever, amen! Gotta' get ready for the Feast of Epiphany Mass! I'll pray for all!!

Here's an oldie but a goodie...

VATICAN II PLUS TWO =

And where are the schools
The daily Mass
Lines to confess
A uniformed lass?

And where are the schools
The Latin class
Cassocked priest
Candles in brass?

And where are the schools
To strengthen souls
Shape their wills
Set the goals?

And where are the schools
The altar boy
Assisting priest
Like Christ, their joy?

And where are the schools
Oh, time you lied
Two generations
Have gone and died.

And where are the schools
Which don’t derive
That two plus two
Are sometimes five?

S – S – P – X
They’re found in large
Where struggling families
Let priest take charge.

For the good of the whole
Priests’ lives are laid
So many may come
Not be afraid.

And win the Faith
From Christ-like hand…
St. Pie the Tenth
Two and two are grand!!

bernadette said...

St. Joan of Arc was martyred...she burned at the stake for the faith, a difficult era, a different time...it is ridiculous to compare ABL to this saint. But it is prideful, most of all.

Tradical said...

Hi Knight et al,
"... Blood/Desire are not dogmas of the Church, and the Church herself is divided as to whether they are even settled doctrine... "

As noted above the delineation is quite clear and as Pope Pius XII noted he had made the decision and it is not viable to continue discussing it. However, Rahner et al continued discussing until Pope John XXIII and we know the rest.

Tradical said...

Hi Bernadette,

"...it is ridiculous to compare ABL to this saint. But it is prideful, most of all."

I do not believe anyone made any direct comparisons between Archbishop Lefebvre and St. Joan of Arc. For example no one claimed that he heard voices of Saints etc.

What they are noting is some parallels in their (and other) lives.

This does not equate to pride. It could equate to pride on the part of Archbishop Lefebvre made such a claim - but other people have tried to make the claims for him. Even the claim of his being like Athanasius was first given by another prelate in Rome.

Archbishop Lefebvre in life was a Prince of the Church. Whether or not his actions were tantamount to schism and excommunication (as noted) is up for debate.

New Catholic said...

Réponse de M. de Prévigny au Prof. Basto (je ne suis pas sûr si vous voulez une traduction):

A propos de la réhabilitation de Jeanne d’Arc

Le procès cassant celui de 1431 n’est pas vraiment à l’initiative du pape. Il est essentiellement dû à Charles VII qui craignait qu’on puisse dire qu’il devait sa couronne à une hérétique présumée. C’est lui qui engagea les évêques français à revoir le procès, essentiellement à partir de 1449, date à laquelle le roi de France reconquit Rouen et put mettre la main sur les minutes du procès scandaleux condamnant Jeanne.
Dès 1450, l’examen visant à reconnaître la nullité de cet acte est engagé sans le soutien de Rome. Nicolas V ne veut pas soutenir le roi de France plus que le roi d’Angleterre et il s’avère que son légat en France, Guillaume d’Estouteville, était aussi archevêque de Rouen ! Ce dernier avait justement reçu la mission de réconcilier les rois de France et d’Angleterre. On imagine dans ce contexte qu’une réhabilitation de Jeanne ne pouvait enchanter les voisins anglais…
Charles VII eut donc l’idée de mettre en avant la famille de Jeanne qui alla elle-même demander au pape son soutien dans cette affaire. Ce n’est qu’en 1455 que Calixte III consentit à le donner. Les historiens qui ont dépouillé les archives s’accorde à dire que la mesure pontificale est essentiellement politique. Avec ce consentement, le pape souhaitait surtout ménager Charles VII pour l’inciter à abolir la « pragmatique sanction de Bourges », un acte qui faisait élire les évêques par les chapitres et limitait le pouvoir du pape en France.
Le procès eut lieu à Paris et surtout à Rouen, il fut entièrement assuré par des français. Il finit par casser la décision de 1431. Dire que c’est l’absence d’appel à Rome qui a cassé le premier procès est vraiment très exagéré. Ce point est certes cité mais n’apparaît pas du tout comme le principal. Les premiers points évoqués sont l’incompétence et la partialité du juge, l’absence de curateur ou de conseil pour Jeanne, les fraudes relatives au choix de la prison et de manière générale tous les abus de procédure qui ont eu lieu au cours de la procédure. Probablement, le jugement aurait été considéré comme nul, combien même Jeanne n’aurait pas demandé à faire appel au cours de son procès.
Les textes de l’époque expliquent qu’un grand nombre de Français furent très déçus que le procès de béatification ne fut pas lancé par l’Église de Rome, immédiatement après le procès cassant le premier jugement, qui se termina en 1456. Il fallut atteindre plus de 5 siècles pour que Léon XIII déclare Jeanne vénérable (1894), que saint Pie X la fasse bienheureuse (1909) et que Benoît XV la présente comme sainte (1920).

Prof. Basto said...

M. de Prévigny,

Merci beaucoup!

Gratias said...

Nouveau Catholique:

Une traduction serait très utile pour les Anglo-parlants. Une nouvelle petite note à Rorate? M. Prévigny a une importante histoire a raconter.

Gratias

Barb in NY said...

My first trip to France in May 1985 was a "Saint Joan Pilgrimage'. I was in Orleans for the annual 'Fete de Jeanne d'Arc' of May 7 and 8. I visited her birthplace in Domremy (after a long, torturous train ride), and went to Rouen, where she was tried and burned at the stake.

I made a return trip in 2000 (last time I was in Europe), but only went to Orleans and to Rouen (easier train schedules). Couldn't get to Domremy due to the logistics involved (tough when you travel alone, as I did).

In Rouen, when I was in the Old Market Square where she died, I purchased some flowers in one of the market stalls. Some I left at the foot of St. Joan's statue by the [hideous modern] church, and three I took down to the Seine River. I know it wasn't the spot where her ashes were cast; but I threw my remaining three flowers, one by one, into the river as my way of saying 'I love you, my dear friend--I hope to see you at the Resurrection on the Last Day!'

Seeing the photo of the Seine in this article reminded me of what I did in Rouen just over a decade ago....

Barb in NY

Barb in NY said...

PS-I love that small picture of St. Joan that's at the top of the home page....do you know who painted it?

Barb in NY